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Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer: Smoking Patterns, Tobacco Type, and Dose-Response Relationship

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Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the primary cause of cancer death in the United States and Europe. Despite remarkable advances in the molecular understanding of PC and advances in new therapeutic approaches, PC remains a disease with a poor prognosis. Although evidence indicates that long-term smoking is a major cause of PC, the molecular pathways behind smoking-induced PC pathogenesis are not fully understood. Smoking cessation can significantly reduce the occurrence of PC.

This review explores the processes underpinning the influence of smoking-related chemicals on fibrosis and inflammation and provides insight into the etiology of PC. In the future, a thorough exploration of the effects of smoking chemicals on the activity of pancreatic stem cells and then on the essential mediators of the association with cancer cells would likely yield new diagnostic targets. Read more . . . 

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