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Low Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) Levels in a Patient Highly Suspected of Having Caput Pancreas Tumor

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The pancreas is an organ that functions as an exocrine and endocrine gland. In 2020, 5,781 cases of pancreatic cancer were reported. Pancreatic cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally [1]. There are various types of cancers based on the involved cells. Pancreatic cancer is typically classified into two types: pancreatic adenocarcinoma (85%), arising from the pancreatic exocrine gland, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (Pan-NET) (5%), arising from the pancreatic endocrine gland [2]. In the early course of the disease, pancreatic cancer is usually asymptomatic; therefore, patients are usually diagnosed in the advanced stage with a poor prognosis and a survival rate of 1-3% in stage III-IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma [3].

The etiology of pancreatic cancer is multifactorial. Non-modifiable risk factors include age over 55 years, especially individuals 70-80 years old; male gender; blood types A, B, and AB; genetics; family history of pancreatic cancer; and type 2 diabetes, especially when the duration is over 10 years. Modifiable risk factors include gastrointestinal and intrapancreatic microflora; smoking or tobacco consumption; occupational exposure to metals or pesticides; alcohol consumption; high red-meat diet, processed meats, cholesterols, and nitrosamine; chronic pancreatitis; acute recurrent pancreatitis; and obesity  Read more . . . 

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