Most pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) express an activated form of KRAS, become hypoxic and dysplastic, and are refractory to chemo- and radiation-therapies. To survive in the hypoxic environment, PDAC cells upregulate enzymes and transporters involved in pH regulation, including the extracellular facing carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9). We evaluated the effect of blocking CA9, in combination with administration of gemcitabine, in mouse models of pancreatic cancer.
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