Glossary of Terms
There are currently 32 names in this directory beginning with the letter I.
Lowest part of the small intestine, located beyond the duodenum and jejunum, just before the large intestine (the colon).
Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)
Treatment with radiation that uses imaging tests to better target the tumor.
Methods used to produce pictures of internal body structures; for example, X-ray films, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The action of the body’s natural defense against infection and disease in response to a foreign substance.
The condition in which the body's immune system, its natural defense against infection and disease, is weakened. This can occur because of illness or because of treatment for some diseases.
The body's natural defense against disease, made up of a variety of organs, cells, and proteins.
Proteins in the serum and cells of the immune system that help fight off infection. Also called antibodies.
A test of proteins within cells to detect specific cell traits involved in abnormal cell growth. It is used to diagnose types of cancer.
Treatment that boosts the body's natural defense against disease. Also called immune therapy.
Literally, something found in its original place. In cancer in situ describes cancer cells that have not spread from their original location.
A reaction in one part of the body that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a result of infection, irritation, or injury. Inflammation can be external or internal.
Process in which a person is given important facts, such as the risks and benefits, about a medical procedure or treatment or a clinical trial before deciding whether to participate.
Informed consent form
A document that must be read, understood, and signed by a person wanting to take part in a research study or clinical trial.
DNA mutations carried in a person’s reproductive cells and potentially passed on to that person’s children. (see also Mutations.)
A hormone made by islet cells of the pancreas that controls the amount of sugar in the blood by moving it into the cells, where it can be used for energy.
A type of internal radiation therapy that places radioactive objects in the tumor.
A radiologist who uses image guidance methods to gain access to vessels and organs to treat diseases.
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)
A tumor of the pancreas that produces mucus that clogs and enlarges the pancreatic duct; IPMNs may progress to invasive pancreatic cancer if left untreated.
One of the approved chemotherapy drugs for pancreatic cancer, it inhibits the replication and transcription of DNA, and so interferes with cell growth.
Islet cell tumor
A tumor that arises from the islet cells of the pancreas, which may be benign or cancerous.