PDAC is associated with an extremely poor prognosis with less than 5% of the patients reaching 5-year overall survival (OS)5,6 due to late diagnosis, rapid tumor progression and limited available treatments.7Novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, aim to improve antitumor immune responses providing a more specific targeted therapy compared to chemotherapy. In recent years, immunotherapy has established its role in the treatment of various solid tumors including PDAC.8–10 Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are monoclonal antibodies used to block extracellular proteins expressed by the tumour or tumor-associated lymphocytes resulting in the suppression of antitumor immune response.11 Read more . . .
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common type of pancreatic cancer accounting for more than 90% of cases1 (commonly referred to as pancreatic cancer), other types being cystadenocarcinoma and acinar cell carcinoma.2 PDAC represents a substantial health problem as presented on GLOBOCAN 2020 with as many deaths (466,000) as cases (496,000), affecting both sexes equally and rating pancreatic cancer as the seventh leading cause of cancer death globally.3 Furthermore, especially in developed countries, PDAC is the fourth most common cause of death, however, the disease is predicted to reach second place within the next decade.4