In the initial phase, autophagy inhibits the transformation of precancerous lesions to cancer. However, in the progressive stage, autophagy promotes tumor growth. Autophagy is also one of the main mechanisms of drug resistance during treatment. Read more . . .
Pancreatic cancer, with high morbidity and mortality rates, is one of the most malignant tumors worldwide. Despite extensive research, the prognosis remains poor. Autophagy, a lysosomal-mediated, highly conserved degradation process that removes abnormal proteins and damaged organelles from the body, is upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Based on differences in the tumor microenvironment and tumor stage, the functions of autophagy in the pathophysiology and treatment of pancreatic cancer differ.