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The Potential Roles of Exosomes in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Metastasis

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Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) ranks among the most common and devastating digestive tract cancers worldwide. Besides early surgical resection, no effective regime against this aggressive malignancy has been discovered so far [1]. The 5-year overall survival rate of PaCa is considered less than 5% and the survival period of advanced PaCa is only 3–6 months [2]. Remarkably, the carcinogenesis of PaCa remains poorly characterized.

The majority of PaCa cases (over 85%) are attributed to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) [3]. Some studies have shown that acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), induced by pancreatic injury, pancreatitis, or genetic toxicity, is one of the most typical events observed during PaCa development. ADM can further evolve into a variety of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), which are, to some extent, still reversible.  Read more . . . 


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