Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and is one of the most difficult-to-treat cancers. Surgical resection and adjuvant therapy have limited effects on the overall survival of PDAC patients. PDAC exhibits an immunosuppressive microenvironment, the immune response predicts survival, and activation of immune system has the potential to produce an efficacious PDAC therapy.
However, chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell immunotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), which have produced unprecedented clinical benefits in a variety of different cancers, produce promising results in only some highly selected patients with PDAC. Read more . . .